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Joseph LOOKOFSKY – Understanding the CISG. A Compact Guide to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, 3rd. Lookofsky, J , Understanding the CISG: a compact guide to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. 5 edn. Understanding the CISG, Fifth (Worldwide) Edition & Updated By Joseph Lookofsky. Read this book to know all the important details. Get your copy now!.

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The ‘private uderstanding law’ rule in Article 1 1 b was not embraced by all those lookofssky in the drafting of the CISG. Then again, as a compromise between ‘provincial’ solutions, the parties to an international sale can elect to ‘ contract in ‘ to the Convention – not only in cases where the parties do not reside in Contracting States, but also, e.

Regarding Article 8 see supra No. Still, those decision-makers who favour a highly autonomous interpretation ciwg application of the treaty will be able to open the Article 7 2 flood-gates quite wide, and commentators have already fleshed out numerous CISG ‘ general principles ‘ for use in pursuing that end, inter aliathe very general principle of good faith. Thus, under rules traditionally applicable in Common law jurisdictions, a ‘one-sided’ modification of a sales contract was not binding by virtue of ‘the mere agreement of the parties.

And [page 29] indeed, in the view of Civilian theory, the most natural means of promissory enforcement is to simply require that a promisor keep his word: Now, however, as regards international contracts subject to the CISG, ‘lack of consideration’ is not a defense available to the promisor who would allege that his CISG promise to pay more should not bind.

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Regarding Article 9, see infra No. Where only one of the parties to an international sales contract resides in such a declaring State, the forum court must undwrstanding a conflict of laws; a forum court asked to apply the formal requirements of the declaring State as opposed to Article 11 should do so only when its rules of private international law lookpfsky to the application of the declaring State’s law.

Accord Diedrich, supra note 7.

See Article 8, supra No. Some time ago, the English Law Commission concluded that the so-called ‘rule’ does not exclude evidence which. Nearly all reported CISG decisions support this view. An important related point is that it is not possible to understand Article 19 in isolation from other Convention provisions.

Also in American tort law, the ‘tendency is clearly to treat the misrepresentation action as a separate matter from the contract’: Since the Convention governs only ‘the rights and obligations of the seller and the buyer arising from [a contract of sale]’, the highest court in France has held that the CISG did not govern the rights of a French third-party against an American seller who issued an end-user guarantee: For example, so as to preclude reasonable recourse to alternative domestic remedies, even understandingg the outcome of a given kind of case might then vary, depending on the applicable competing domestic rule of law.


The offeror is the master of the offer. The implication here is that an independent autonomous interpretation should be undertakent at least with a view towards achieving results acceptable to a unrerstanding number of CISG Contracting States.

In this situation, the Convention [page 33] applies without any recourse to rules of private international law; indeed, in this situation there is no conflict between the domestic sales laws of the US and France. The German terms Gesetzesanalogie and Understanidng seem appropriate to describe the two techniques: As regards contracting out, where the parties do not elect to displace the CISG regime in thhe entirety, they undfrstanding often contract out to a more limited extent, e.

In many cases the Incoterms will be made applicable by virtue of an express contractual provision, e. And since the international contract of sale is the single most important international contract type, [1] the Convention has clearly earned its place in the contractual segment of the International Encyclopedia of Laws.

In order to define which contracts and disputes are within the scope of the CISG treaty, Articles demarcate lookofsly sales are to be regarded as ‘international’, which kinds of transactions are to be regarded as international ‘sales’ of ‘goods’, which issues are ‘governed’ by the treaty, etc. In such event, the acceptance becomes effective upon its receipt and before the subsequent notice by the offeror. The first – and certainly understandibg most important – general provision in Chapter 1 of Part III relates to the rules which permit an injured party undrrstanding ‘put an end to the contract,’ i.

Article 4 see supra No.

Article 28 requires that a court or arbitral tribunal which is asked to ‘require performance’ under the Convention engage in a 2-step process. Other revocable offers may be withdrawn after receipt but prior to the dispatch of an acceptance by the offeree. The Case of Iranian Courts. Regarding tort solution in competition with Articles 5 and 35, see generally Lookofsky J. Regarding Article 79, see infra No. The same delivery rule expressly applies to ‘unidentified goods to be drawn from a specific stock or to be manufactured or produced Regarding Article 7 2 and decision-making by analogy, see supra No.

Finally, these States were also of the opinion that the adoption of uniform rules which govern contracts for the international sale of goods and take into account the different social, economic and legal systems would contribute to the removal of legal barriers in international trade and promote the development of international trade.


On the other hand, dispensing with the consideration requirement has not dispensed with the real problem which sometimes lurks in the one-sided modification kind of case. If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted understaanding to the understanding that a understandingg person of the same kind as the other party ciag have had in the same circumstances.

The declarations do not, however, affect the possible application of Part II by virtue of Article 1 1 b: According to Article 15, paragraph Ian offer becomes effective when it ‘reaches’ the offeree.

Numerous CISG reported decisions involve buyers’ lookofsky for monetary relief: By disregarding this fact, and thus the criterion common to the application of subparagraphs l a and l ba court would reach the result that the Convention does cisgg apply to the transaction concerned. With this book as their guide, commercial lawyers and law students who need to understand international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will confidently navigate important topic areas such as:.

Understanding the CISG, Fifth (Worldwide) Edition | Wolters Kluwer Legal & Regulatory

Regarding the withdrawal of an acceptance under Article 22, see infra No. As indicated in Article 4, the Convention is ‘not [generally] concerned’ with the validity of the contract, i. See also Mitchell Aircraft Spares Inc. Regarding Article 6, see infra No. To be applicable, the usage must be one which the parties knew or ought to have known and which in international trade is widely known to, and regularly observed by, parties to contracts of the type involved in the particular trade concerned.

But when both parties ‘participate fully’ in preparing the instrument, he argues that only paragraph 3 would apply.

Understanding the CISG, Fifth (Worldwide) Edition

Regarding the American view see infra No. See generally Lookofsky, op.

The CISG rules concerning ‘anticipatory’ breach are in some respects closely related to the remedy of avoidance for fundamental breach. Paragraph 2 of Article 9 lays down the requirements for the implied incorporation of a given usage in the particular international trade. The ‘internationality’ element, common to both subparagraph l a and l b situations, is that the parties to the contract have their places of business in different States.