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The Bush- Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) is a standardised, quantifiable examination of catatonia designed to screen and diagnose. Tab. 1: According to the item Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS), here partially modified and partially reported, the severity of catatonia is. PDF | Objective: This article aims to describe the adaptation and translation process of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) and.

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Major depressive disorder was the main diagnosis in six patients 4. Abstract Catatonia is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs with primary psychiatric disorders or secondary to general medical conditions. A search for newer treatment approaches to catatonia will require a rating scale that is sensitive to clinical improvement in catatonia without contaminating the rest of psychopathology. Depending on the criteria being used, we noticed an important difference in exact prevalence, which makes it clear that we need clear-cut criteria.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 89 4: Dementia Praecox or Group of Schizophrenias []. Prevalence of catatonia in an acute psychiatric patient sample according to different criteria.

Eur Psychiatry The word catatonia is Greek for tension insanity, a concept developed by Kahlbaum to describe a new illness. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, A factor analysis was conducted in order to generate six catatonic symptom clusters. Schizophr Bull It measures the severity of 23 catatonic signs. Consequently, those clinicians who are not familiar with the concept of catatonia do not diagnose nor treat catatonia. When we used the latest DSM-criteria, only As a result, an unclear clinical concept of catatonia exists with the use of different diagnostical criteria and different rating scales to score catatonic symptomatology.

Out of the total patient group, 88 Results of clear and unambiguous descriptions of 28 terms used to define or describe catatonia:.


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In most clinical settings, systematic screening for depression, anxiety, suicidal risk, and substance abuse are commonly performed. A vast number of patients were taking benzodiazepines at the time of testing, which could have masked more severe presentations of the catatonic syndrome.

Barriers to the Detection of Catatonia We have identified the following barriers to the detection of catatonia.

Consequently, these divergent findings raise two interesting points. While there are several catatonia rating scales, these scales are not routinely taught or included in educational programs as valuable diagnostic instruments. And finally, psychiatric educators rarely include catatonic signs as an important component of their curriculum. There were no exclusion criteria for participation. J ECT Antidepressants were administered to There is a need to replace these terms with more common and easily understandable terms or to provide concise and clear definitions.

Fink and Taylor made their own diagnostic criteria with emphasis on the duration of the catatonic symptoms Moreover, the sample size was rather small, especially in some subgroups. The rating scale is accompanied by a standardised examination procedure consisting of nine steps.

Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) – PsychTools

Similarly, Schneider compared patients with catatonic schizophrenic and manic excitement, respectively and found that schizophrenic agitated patients displayed more blocking, waxy flexibility, stereotyped speech, mutism, and negativism In an exploratory open label study design, each patient admitted to a psychiatric intensive catatoia during a period of 12 months was assessed for catatonic and clinical symptomatology. The unknown pathophysiology may contribute to the different views on catatonia.

The authors would like to thank Harold W. First, behavior problems are overemphasized in deference to motor disorders signs.

Frontiers | Prevalence of the Catatonic Syndrome in an Acute Inpatient Sample | Psychiatry

Interestingly, when focusing on the DSM-5 criteria of catatonia at least 3 out of 12 selected symptoms22 patients For screening, items are marked as absent 0 or present 3. Rating scale and standardized examination.


The PANSS is a widely used medical scale for measuring symptom severity of patients with schizophrenia. Patients presenting with the following catatonic signs would not be admitted or treated if one followed DSM-IV-TR criteria; these include echopraxia, peculiarities of speech, stereotypies, mannerisms, and grimacing. In other words, catatonic symptomatology was highly prevalent in hush patient population, although in most cases mildly.

Participants A total group of patients female: Login Register Login using. Distribution of catatonic signs.

Catatonia is a psychomotor symptom cluster characterized by a heterogeneous group of mental, motor, vegetative, and behavioral signs. Many clinicians believe that catatonia is not seen anymore. We have identified the following barriers to the fgancis of catatonia. When focusing on the first 14 items of the BFCRS, which are suggested for using the instrument as a screening cafatonia, patients Patients with a psychotic or mood disorder as a primary diagnosis had the most prominent catatonic symptom profiles see Figure 1.

The Detection and Measurement of Catatonia

Barriers to Recognition of Catatonia The recognition of catatonic features by criteria used to define catatonia has been found to be inadequate. All of the patients who were bysh to the psychiatric intensive ward were included in the study.

From Psychopathology to Neurobiology. The review of Caroff and colleagues shows similar results In these studies, different criteria to diagnose catatonia were caattonia, which renders a comparison between different studies on the prevalence of catatonia more difficult.

Failure to identify catatonia may result in increased morbidity and mortality.