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Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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The back translation was reviewed against the English version so as to ensure conceptual equivalence of the translation carried out, avoiding mistranslations and translation losses which would render an incomplete replication of the source questionnaire in the target one.

However, elimination of item S6 gave only minor gains with respect to the internal consistency of the tool. Table 5 shows reliability results for this study.

The physicians were briefed about the aims of the study, the BMQ itself and the target number of patients to be recruited. One independent forward translation was carried out using Maltese ahout by the principal investigator. Recalculated Beliegs alpha values obtained are shown in Table 4.

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. All values fall within the range obtained by the original study 21with the exception of the General-Overuse scale. Educ Meas Issues Pract. However, Mahler et al.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

This functional approach in the translation was considered to respect the target patients and their situation and cultural background. The questionnaire was collected and checked on completion. This scale presented some anomalies with respect to the internal consistency. The final solution for Principal Component Analysis yielded a four-factor structure representing the 4 sub-scales of the BMQ, with results being comparable medifines previous studies out in different languages.

Sao Paulo Med J. However, alpha is very dependent on the number of items in a test, which might result in a reduced value of alpha. During the analysis of alpha, items G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines and G8 If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe questiobnaire medicines resulted in unexpectedly lower values.


This form of consultation was essential for better translation equivalence. It was clear at this point that G4 was the item that was mostly inconsistent with the rest of the items on the general overuse scale. These anomalies in item-correlations were further investigated by re-calculating alpha after elimination of items G4 and G8 respectively and individually from the 4-item overuse scale.

Journal List Pharm Pract Granada v. Internal consistency values for the Mevicines study 7 and the Spanish studies 910 were all above 0.

When using a psychometric instrument in a different language to that in which it has been original constructed, it needs to be appropriately translated, taking into consideration cross-cultural issues, conceptual equivalence and it needs to possess adequate psychometric properties.

Therefore, patients with different levels of education should be targeted differently when counselling patients about their medicines. The sub-scales in the French version belliefs demonstrated good internal consistency with alpha values in the range of 0.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

Evaluacion de las creencias sobre el tratamiento: Specific-Concerns scale assesses perceptions of the likelihood of adverse reactions as a consequence of taking the prescribed medication. This was done to ensure questinnaire translation emdicines was linguistically, culturally and contextually appropriate thereby avoiding the pitfalls described in the paper highlighting issues identified in the questionnxire Scandinavian versions of the BMQ.

In each case one component was extracted. In Malta, natural remedies – also referred to as complementary alternative medication CAMare relatively novel and more likely to appeal to a younger generation in Malta.

Principal component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation. J Eval Clin Pract. This could be indicative of the item being relatively unstable mrdicines the overuse scale. Comparisons of Internal consistency alpha values obtained in the Maltese study with the original and others published in different languages.

Natural remedies were part of folklore which people in Malta moved away from upon introduction of questionnqire is today considered to be conventional medicine. Developing test score reports that work: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Finalisation of the translation allowed for any necessary modifications or rewording of the items.


Item loadings Table 6 and Table 7showed a varied outcome with items from one sub-scale loading elsewhere. Irrespective of chronic illness and age, low alpha values in the Maltese study are thought to be related to the concept of natural remedies being relatively new and thereby misunderstood by the cohort.

Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)

Participants were informed that the study was on a voluntary basis, that all information would be kept confidential, and that the information would only be handled by the principal investigator and would not be accessible to the hospital staff. For the purpose of the present study, only the Maltese version was used.

Cronbach alpha values are presented in Table 3. The principle aim of this study was therefore, to produce a culturally and contextually appropriate version of the BMQ in the Maltese language and to assess its psychometric properties.

The principal investigator was present during the filling of the questionnaire. Ohio State University; Curr Pharm Teach Learn. A simple guide and reference.

Rheumatology Oxford ; 44 6: Thus, alpha was recalculated first by eliminating G8 from the scale, then by eliminating G4 from the scale in order to see the differences between both responses. The BMQ consists of an item questionnaire which assesses medication beliefs in general and in specific conditions allowing for the investigation of the overall perceptions of medication in general BMQ—Generalas well as perceptions of medication in more definite situations such as chronic illnesses BMQ —Specific.

After conducting PCA with restriction to two factors, item S6 loaded on two components, with a loading of 0.