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Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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The case of German “revisionism” after World Wokfers I offers a good illustration. There’s a problem loading this menu right now. Because these basic traits are shared by all states, the exponents of the tradi- tional approach can afford to treat these psychological presupposi- tions in a cavalier fashion.

The “fire and water” stage in physics, as Kurt Lewin has so aptly called it, came to an end to make room for modern physics once the analysts had learned to penetrate to relatively simple and abundant components such as atoms, ions, and velocities.

Was never wolferw or read. Only if it becomes possible to under- stand and predict typical kinds of nonconformist behavior can theory hope to approach reality. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. Specifically, these men are expected to place exceedingly high value on the so-called pos- sessions of the nation above all, on national survival, national independence, and territorial integrity and to react in fear against any threats to these possessions.

No matter how far theory succeeds in elaborating the rules and principles of military deterrence, for instance, it does not provide the statesman with propositions from which the proper policy for coping with arrnold specific would-be aggressor can be deduced; yet the fate of mankind may hinge on his choice of policy in the particular instance.

Although the Suez crisis did not create enmity between the United States and its major European allies sufficient to justify any expec- tation of violence between them, it nevertheless seriously disrupted their previous friendly relations. Another case of divided sovereignty is presented by the European Coal and Steel Community which can act with considerable independence within the field of its competence. Only in the case of genuine arnod ation in which sovereignties are merged does this obstacle disappear; then the national interest becomes the federal interest, and the responsibility is shifted to the supranational or federal government.

Only in exceptional cases, as in Western Europe, have nations gone far in committing themselves to such co-operation even in the economic field where the opportunity and the advan- tages are most apparent.

People-to-people diplomacy and cultural exchanges can be useful, however, if they help to bolster popular feelings of friendship where and when amical interstate relations or a relaxation of collabkration tension is in the national interest.

Paperbackpages. It is undeniable that men alone, and not states, are capable of desires and intentions, preferences and feelings of friendship or hatred; men, not states, can be tempted or provoked, can overestimate or underestimate their own country’s power relative to the power of other collaboeation, and can establish the goals of national policy and sacrifices consistent with national security.


When an exception to this general proposition is encountered, it calls for special analysis: The system is said to hold nations in the iron grip of state necessity and compulsion. What Arab leaders mean when they speak from the point of view of their primary corporate interest may be a purely national interest or instead a changing composite of national, Pan-Arab, and Pan- Islamic interest.

One further pair of contrasting categories of goals deserves attention. The Twenty Years’ Crisis, Better understanding may in fact reveal the incompatibility of their re- spective objectives.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

Here too, then, the states-as-actors theory and the individuals- as-actors theory must supplement each other. Presumably, this implies that decision-makers tend to conform to the demands of this cul- ture, of its values and taboos, whether or not they have internalized, them and made them part of their own individual predispositions.

Reunification has become a pressing possession goal for these partitioned countries. It greatly increases the difficulty, however, of deciding what is and what is not in the interest of the nation as a whole. It is customary to call this the realist school. Preview — Discord and Collaboration by Arnold Wolfers. Get to Know Us.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books

Some form of regular and institutionalized political co- operation among didcord retaining their power of ultimate decision perhaps after the model of the British Commonwealth may be Amity and Enmity Among Nations 29 able under certain circumstances to assure a high degree of amity among the participants without interfering in the proper function- ing of the national governments. If, instead, all states worthy of the name were as eager for expansion as Kjellen maintained, the ensuing struggle would turn on efforts at territorial acquisition and on counterefforts at territorial preservation.

The American people, or influential Americans, may place high value on the liberation of satellite peoples; the question is whether such liberation is valued highly enough to turn it into an American foreign policy goal for which a high price possibly would be paid. Suddenly an opening occurs in front of them, offering an opportunity to move up close to the track.

Yet excessive expectations concerning enemy action can have serious drawbacks; instead of deterring an wnd from taking action for which he has the capability, it may lead to preparations so massive that hostile action by the opponent is provoked rather than prevented.

As a case in point, governments will experience a strong compulsion to expect the worst from their enemy, if only to be properly prepared. States must be thought capable, for example, of desires and preferences, of satisfaction ahd dissatisfaction, of the choice of goals and means.

Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, Recent debates on aid to underdeveloped countries supply ample material to illustrate these dilemmas. It is hard to predict the course that Nehru will follow as a consequence of the rather remote threats of the cold war to India. There is one difference, however: But then in the rest of the book nothing more is said about the environment or about the pulls and pressures it exerts on policy-makers.


If it is true that the anarchical multi- state system creates a condition of constant danger to national core possessions specifically, to national survival and, at the same time, provides frequent opportunity for new acquisitions, the actors can be said to act under external compulsion rather than in accordance with their preferences. Open Preview See a Problem? Acts of aggression are explained in one case by the provocative nature of the environmental conditions under which a nation is made to live, for instance by having been partitioned or subjected to discrimina- tory treatment; they are accounted for in another case by the psy- choneurotic traits of particular leaders.

Linked Data More info about Linked Data. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Yet most Germans seem to agree with the official view of the West German government according to which the goal of preserving the freedoms West Germans enjoy under a democratic constitution-an indirect national goal-should be given precedence over German reunification.

Yet, while it may be close to the pole of vital goals usually assumed to justify the resort to violence, it may be sufficiently removed from this pole to keep Soviet policy-makers from initiating a war for the sake of its promotion.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.

Leading statesmen, too, may become blinded by their personal grudges against a particular nation or against a particular foreign statesman. While there wrnold be leeway for choice, and thus for the impact of psychological factors which distinguish individuals rather than ab- stract states, it is by no means useless or misleading to take the relatively simple and very abstract states-as-actors model as an initial working hypothesis.

It is easy to see that both these sweeping assumptions are not the products of unrealistic fantasies. I shall deviate from this practice because I find it impossible to identify the many colleagues, assistants, students and fellow-authors who in one way or another enriched and influenced my thinking during the long period in which these essays were conceived and, in part, published.

It is not hard to see what kinds of deviations from the billiard ball model of a multistate system are possible, or to see that certain types collaboratioj deviations facilitate the operations and increase the influ- ence of nonstate corporate actors. The difference need not be one only of greater or lesser security of acquired possessions; it may also signify a difference in happiness, in future opportunities, and perhaps in moral satisfaction.

Arnold Wolfers well performs that task, and it is to be hoped that his wise and learned book will have the widest possible reading. It is worth noting that a similar degree of conformity may be found where danger and compulsion are at a minimum.